Thursday, 31 August 2017

Backyard landscaping is just about all about many various things

Your backyard landscaping is going to have being about many various issues but the most critical certainly 1 of these if the well being. most folks get into backyard landscaping simply because they would such as to adjust the look along with really feel of their own home, they need to produce it a new wonderful location exactly where themselves can appear for you to be safe along with comfortable at all times. Backyard landscaping can always be a fantastic approach to add even more peace to your daily life whether or not you're on your current own or even you've a big loved ones as well as tons associated with kids. An Individual will be in a situation to produce a sanctuary with your backyard landscaping that will you have by no means had before within your life.

Backyard landscaping can not have to become drastic as well as hard. you can perform your very own person al backyard landscaping or even you'll become able to employ a contractor to complete everything pertaining to you. The Particular option is yours yet doing the particular work oneself may be described as a large amount of work, particularly if you are usually doing not have got access to any encounter on this type regarding thing. You will find a myriad of things that you will must understand about prior to deciding to begin carrying out your personal backyard landscaping. A Person may have to adopt a new crash course within landscaping and furthermore this program is planning to be jammed packed with all kinds of info which you by no means even knew ended up being out there. An Individual could find any way to save a few funds around the work if you are doing the won backyard landscaping nevertheless should you screw issues up as well badly an individual may end up spending a lot more to get everything fixed.

If you want to obtain a few backyard landscaping carried out you must merely take action your self when it goes to become a new easy and straightforward job. In the actual event that you'll need irrigation items managed and planes as well as elevations let it sit to the professionals in which do it to find a living. These kinds of items could end up being more than your head entirely. Anyone need to watch out how you're going with regards to the backyard landscaping or perhaps you can end up along with a serious mess on the own hands.

There certainly tend to be a number of fantastic areas for you personally to find out some more with regards to backyard landscaping such since the local public library and also the internet. An Individual will get many backyard landscaping textbooks out with the library and also these will help you to create your best decisions concerning your current landscaping needs. An Individual can furthermore get many get it done yourself ideas online.

Monday, 14 August 2017

Stay distinct regarding Accidents And Keep Clean Landscape Along With Tree Services Companies

You might certainly not be conscious of this reality nonetheless tree maintenance could a lot more aids you in order to definitely conserve numerous dollars. These kinds of undesirable trees could damage your wall surfaces and also sewage techniques using passing time. If a person obtain to obtain rid involving undesirable trees also as additional determine pertaining to fort worth tree trimming, after that you're complimentary coming from investing cash several other allocations.

Merely such as giving safety as well as preventing crashes, these tree caring also as maintenance business will definitely keep tidiness, on part of customers. Overgrown and also undesirable trees will certainly generate a mess, too because this will surely additionally aid in interfering using the appearance of one's stunning yard as well as excessive landscape. Help To Make particular to contact fort really worth tree pruning firms, and also repair each day and within addition occasion using them.< br>
Not merely protecting against wall surface fractures, however appropriate tree treatment too as companies will certainly avoid any sort of additional crashes from getting area. When you have a classic tree inside your landscape, you can find possibilities in which a vintage branch could drop for you anytime.

Some undesirable strong tree trunks may hinder your current job, as well as anyone call for expert Tree service, all through such emergency situations constantly. In existing, acquiring rid regarding undesirable trees is not a difficult activity, when you've agents to be able to immediate anyone using the whole treatment. A Variety Of some other in comparison in order to removing unnecessary trees, you can in addition prepare in order to eliminate dead Sprinkler Installation Frisco trees without having coping with any type of trouble.

It's important for Sprinkler System Fris co you to view the factors regarding working along with fort worth tree service. As these trunks are difficult as well as old, consequently; an individual need suitable devices and inside addition tools for acquiring rid associated with trees. They Will are generally educated well, and also utilize proper equipments regarding obtaining rid of tree trunks securely.

Monday, 3 July 2017

Are All Keywords d Equal

In 2017, as in the previous years, the influence of social media on the Internet and also on everyone who is working online has continued to expand. If you've not previously used video marketing then you might be astonished at how effective it can be it getting your website new visitors. Whether it's deciding where you can film your piece or what to chat about, it's an easy task to get overwhelmed and perhaps deterred from posting videos all together. If you might be looking for any creation that can reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, discoloration, large pores, uneven skin texture, and aging skin, a plant-based cream called Nerium AD Age-Defying Treatment could be just that which you are looking for.

By: Clair Bennet. Television adverts will be more expensive. Patience in your end is key but if after six months you will still don't have results and find out progress, move on.

Record yourself to be able to help make video clips. Everyone seems to think that the only real method to market a video would be to stick it on video-sharing websites like YouTube. Videos should help people remember what your brnad is about. Few people know the way to use video blog marketing to sell products or services.

If you might be somebody who is great with Microsoft Powerpoint, you can slide show videos to market your product/service. I produce a wmv file and employ windows movie maker as my editing software. Later for you will need to prepare a financial budget and hang up dates and places for shootings.

Another popular human branding method is cautery branding that involves the use of the medical cautery pen, which is a handheld and battery-operated tool effective for fine-line branding. Therefore, spend some quality time researching in regards to the various platforms and gather a good understanding of how things work there. Optimized performance of your video for long-term successful results requires analysing the maximum amount of data as you possibly can and equals successful business performance. The unrestricted reach of the digital media beats the limited one of analog media. Pretty soon, your company will probably be number one when it comes to marketing efforts.

Article Directory: http://www. marketingtitan. She holds a PHD in writing from Cambridge. BUILD YOUR NETWORK MARKETING BIZ LIKE THE PRO'S .

AppServ Open Project 0

Video content marketing is something that is in no way going to go away. If you would like to dominate video marketing, you can find several basic steps that i7 group presentation you need to become following that will help you've better outcomes. It's a proven fact that multimedia more easily and effectively captivates your audience and grab's the eye of your prospects, visitors, subscribers and customers. If you do think this, could it be a fact. It features a free of charge service that enables one to upload a video one time for you to multiple video sharing sites like www.

You seriously can't expect a scout to demonstrate up at your front door also, he won't spend his time checking up on your skills while you're on a schoolyard, so locate a close friend that knows the way to at least hold a camera, and shoot a killer video! Your chances of having scouted by at least your local club will surely increase. The course covered the true i7 group espaol secret topics of online marketing. AnotherWayMarketing.

Simplicity - an excellent benefit of the SWOT 2x2 matrix is always that it is relatively easy and basic to comprehend -- you identify the strengths, weaknesses (internal) and then the opportunities and threats (external) that may be presented. In short, almost all of the Internet's resources are now being used within this brand of marketing. Also within this global economy, it is not only businesses in the UK that you have to be worried about, you will find businesses over the world that would like nothing much better than to consider you customers from you.

No Road Blocks. pr" (StumbleUpon's link shortening service) and sent notification to your Twitter and Facebook accounts from inside of Su. This may be additional information, a free download, or even a price reduction. So, start building a good name online now.

Step 5: Stick to your social media strategy and make it out faithfully. No matter how easy the task of social networking appears to be it is not in reality. For tips and advice to aid you find the best Website Marketing Video strategies, go to his blog: Wealth Success Ventures. some pages on various Web 0 sites and rank them in Google. and it requires just a couple of minutes a day.

Thursday, 22 June 2017

Ivanka Trump Sees Trademarks Approved as Brand Looks to Move Into Lingerie Business

Ivanka Trump Sees Trademarks Approved as Brand Looks to Move Into Lingerie Business | Mediaite

U.S. trademark officials have "steadily granted initial approval to a stream of new products" for the Ivanka Trump's brand, including lingerie, leisurewear and athletic wear, according to Bloomberg.

Ivanka Trump Marks LLC has reportedly filed, and been preliminarily approved for, three requests for trademarking her name on clothing. "That brings to 10 the number of trademarks granted preliminary permission this year, following a nine-month dry spell for the brand," per Bloomberg's reporting.

The report notes that Ivanka, who since taking a position in the White House has sought to disentangle herself from her namesa ke clothing brand, faces criticism for "walking a fine line between capitalizing on her prominence and maintaining her role as an unpaid senior adviser to President Donald Trump."

The news of the Ivanka Trump brand's move into the intimates market comes amidst reports of low wages and abuse in the brand's factories in Asia. Although Ivanka took a leave of absence from running her brand to take a position in the White House in January, she remains the sole beneficiary of a trust receiving the company's profits.

During her father's presidential campaign, as Bloomberg points out, "sales of her goods were up 21 percent," and profits have only grown since she took a high profile position inside Trump's administration.

The specter of misconduct has only grown during Trump's first five months in office, in light of a flurry of reports that the Iva nka Trump brand has secured trademarks in countries as the U.S. conducts official state business with their governments.

As Bloomberg notes, the House Judiciary Committee has taken notice: members "sent a letter questioning Ivanka Trump's involvement with her brand to Abigail Klem, who is now leading the company. The letter points to the company's trademark applications overseas, especially in countries like China and the Philippines, whose leaders she has met in her government role."

In the letter, members write: "We remain concerned that Ivanka Trump may have used and may continue to use her official position within the White House to benefit her private interests."

[image via screengrab]


Follow Aidan McLaughlin (@aidnmclaughlin) on Twitter

Have a tip we should know?

Gaillardia of the Outer Banks, NC - Jobell Flower

The Jobellflower

If you ever have the opportunity to visit the Outer Banks, it's well worth the trip. They are barrier islands along the Atlantic coast of North Carolina.

If you're lucky, you'll get to see a beautiful flower blanketing the landscape: gaillardia. This flower normally blooms in summer, but on a recent visit to the Outer Banks, I found clumps of them blooming in early spring.

They seem to thrive in the most inhospitable of conditions. I found them growing near the ocean amongst the straggly grasses of the sand dunes. I also found them growing along the side of the road. Every gaillardia flower I found, though, grew in the wide open sun, and grew best surrounded by sand.

The locals have a story for how all those gaillardias got to be all o ver the sand dunes and along the sides of the road.

Meet Joe and Josephine Bell

In the early part of the twentieth century a middle-aged couple was very much still in love. Their names were Joe and Josephine Bell.

Joe doted on Josephine. You could tell it was true love that they shared.

They loved to frequent the Outer Banks in the summers. At that time, the Banks weren't very developed and the Bells loved the rustic appeal of life near the ocean. They found friends among the fishermen, groundskeepers and hunters that lived there.

The Bells stayed in various vacation homes when they went to the Outer Banks. They always paid their way, but enjoyed meeting all the different people who frequented the area. They enjoyed helping to keep house in the places they stayed and loved helping people who crossed their path.

Josephine's kindness was known all over the Outer Banks. She would even take on the role as a midwife if needed, though she wasn't a midwife by trade. Joe was never far away, and always willing to help. He willingly ran errands for Josephine, helped expectant fathers and was a great handyman.

Time passed and the Bells grew older. One winter, at their home inland, Josephine fell very ill. She made Joe promise to return to the Outer Banks to continue their tradition of staying there in the summers and helping people. She died, not long after Joe made his promise.

Joe indeed retur ned to the Outer Banks the following summer. But after sharing so many fond memories with Josephine, it was almost too much to bear. The sunrise was beautiful, but filled him with an empty longing for the love of his life. The beaches were peaceful, but lonely without Josephine.

Distressed and sullen, Joe returned inland.

A Sign From Josephine

Unexpectedly, he found a clump of gaillardia flowers growing in a garden where Josephine often liked to work. These flowers surrounded a large seashell that Josephine had once brought back from the beach. He didn't plant those flowers; they had never been there before. He knew, however, that they were Josephine's favorite type of flower. They were fiery orange with a reddish center.

He knew what he had to do.

Carefully digging up the flowers and tediously keeping the roots moist, Joe journeyed back to the Oute r Banks. He started in Nag's Head, he planted those flowers one by one all along the sand dunes. When they seeded, he took them and scattered them wherever he went.

He was sewing the seeds of his true love.

The locals liken Joe Bell to Johnny Appleseed. He spread that flower all over the barrier islands so that now, they blanket the landscape as if they were native flowers. They grow amazingly well and don't seem to mind the salt spray from the ocean.

The seeds happily ride the ever-present winds in the Outer Banks and thrive in the sandy soil.

Now, the locals fondly refer to Joe's flower as the Jobell flower - often as one word: Jobellflower.

I first heard this story courtesy of Charles Whedbee in his book Outer Banks Mysteries & Seaside Stories. When I visited the islands recently, a National Park employee re-told the story to me and I share it with you. jobell-flower

Monday, 19 June 2017

All about Hydrotherapy and its various Types or Treatments

boy under water

Credit: Maliz Ong


Water has always been promoted as a highly beneficial substance. Throughout the years, it was usednot only for human survival, but for its healing properties as well. Hydrotherapy is actually a field of alternative medicine wherein water is typically used to ease discomfort, an anti-stress activity and many more. Having said that, in this article you will read about the fundamentals of this specific field along with the different types of hydrotherapy.

A brief description of hydrotherapy

As mentioned above, hydrotherapy is the use of water to alleviate discomforts. But, this field of alternative medicine is not only focused on easing one's pain. It is also used in relieving stress, treating certain ailments and enhancing one's overall health and well-being. However, depending on the type of hydrotherapy used, not a ll methods will bring forth all these benefits. Some methods are focused on promoting comfort while others are designed to treat or cure certain diseases. All these methodswill be thoroughly discussed in the latter part of this article.

Going back to the basics of hydrotherapy, one may ask if this alternative medicine practice is effective? Most methods used in hydrotherapy revolves around the concept of "hot" and "cold" therapy. To explain this concept further, when anything cold comes in contact with your body, it causes a stimulating reaction. Aside from that, your blood vessels constrict leading to decelerated blood flow. Heat on the other hand, is relaxing. It tends to dilate blood vessels and at the same time increase your blood flow. In addition to that, heat also causes sweating. Hence, you can also release or eliminate body toxins through heat applications. If you altern ate hot and cold, it can stimulate blood circulation, eliminate toxins and reduce inflammation. Considering this concept, we can say that hydrotherapy has some valid claims especially when it comes to easing or relieving pain, swelling and stress.

Types of hydrotherapy

Hydrotherapy is mostly applied externally. But, there are also some types or treatments that are for internal use. Each of them can offer various health benefits depending on the treatment used. To give you some examples, here is a list of the most common methods or treatments under this specific field of alternative medicine.


Credit: Petr Kratochvil


Sitz baths

One of today's most popular hydrotherapy treatment for hemorrhoids, back pain (lower), itching and muscle spasms within the anal area is sitz bath. This can also be used in increasing blood flow within t he said area. Typically, this method is usually prescribedin patients that have undergone a surgical procedure for cleansing purposes, to ease the pain and to promote faster healing.

Basically, during this treatment, your hips are immersed in hot or cold water. Medications or other substances like baking soda, Epsom salt and vinegar can also be added depending on your underlying medical condition. You can also do this at home if you have a plastic sitz bath.

Steam bath and sauna

Most of you may be familiar with saunas and steam baths. Yes, there is a distinction between the two. But, both uses heat, which results in sweating. According to various studies, these two are also good for relaxation, managing pain and loosening or clearing mucus in your respiratory system. However, keep in mind that steam can trigger asthma. For that reason, asthmatic patients should only opt for saunas. In addition to that; individuals who are pregnant, taking mood-altering medicati ons and those who have cardiovascular diseases should also avoid these places. If you are perfectly healthy, you should still limit your stay in these areas for 15 to 20 minutes. And, of course, don't forget to drink water or fluids afterwards to avoid dehydration.

Aquatic physical therapy or Watsu

Another interesting treatment is Watsu. Basically, this treatment is a mixture of shiatsu (massage) or muscle stretching and hydrotherapy since it is normally done in a specialized pool that has warm water. Its primary benefit is to relive stress and mu scle tension. But, it can also be applied for pain management and to develop your muscles' flexibility. Nonetheless, this treatment requires a competent therapist since there are several body movements and muscle stretching involved. This specific hydrotherapy treatment is usually offered in spas.

Irrigations and enema

The main purpose of irrigations and enema is for internal body cleansing or detoxification. In this process, you will flush water in your body to flush-out harmful debris or substances. One common example is nasal irrigation where in water containing a small amount of salt is slowly poured or flushed in your nasal cavity to remove excess mucus and dirt. Colonic irrigation is another example. However, there are some controversies revolving around this met hod. Some say it's effective for detoxifying your body while others says otherwise. Nonetheless, it is best to thoroughly research this specific topic before opting for one.

As for enema, its procedures are mostlysimilar to colonic irrigation. However, it only focuses on the lower part of one's colon. Furthermore, enemais only infused once and can be done by non-professionals. If you are seeking more information about enema, this article entitled "Understanding the Mechanism behind Coffee Enema" may give you some helpful information.


There are many more hydrotherapy treatments that are not mentioned above such as mineral bath, hot or cold compress, wraps, motion-based hydrotherapy and other spa offered treatments. Most of these methods or practices promote a relaxing state. But, others are also designed to relieve pain, flu symptoms and other minor discomforts.


Credit: wikimedia commons - public domain

Is hydrotherapy safe?

Most types of hydrotherapy that are externally applied are considered safe. Some may need professional help and tools while others caneasily be done at home. However, as I mentioned above, you should do a thorough research before trying any internally administered hydrotherapy like colonic irrigations and enema. As for sitz baths, nasal irrigation, hot or cold compresses and arm or foot baths; you can simply do these at home without severe risks involved. But, make sure to know every step by step procedures before doing it to avoid minor injuries.

Irrigation sprinkler

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

impact spr inkler head in action

Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers providing irrigation to agriculture, crops, vegetation, or for recreation, as a cooling system, or for the control of airborne dust, landscaping and golf courses. The sprinkler system irrigates the field and thus it is widely used in sandy areas as it checks the wastage of water through seepage and evaporation. Sprinkler irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. The pump supply system, sprinklers and operating conditions must be designed to enable a uniform application of water.


1 Types

1.1 Industrial

1.2 Residential

1.3 Underground Sprinkler

1.4 Agricultural Science

2 Use

3 Health risks from aerosols

4 Gallery
< br>5 See also

6 References

7 External links



Sprinklers that spray in a fixed pattern are generally called sprays or spray heads. Sprays are not usually designed to operate at pressures , due to misting Sprinkler System problems that may develop.

Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move in a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rainguns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130lbf/in (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9inches (10 to 50mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.


An oscillating s prinkler is commonly used to water residential lawns, and is moved as needed.

Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinklers, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, and underground sprinkler systems. Small sprinklers are available at home and garden stores or hardware stores for small costs. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are placed only temporarily. Other systems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing system. An ingenious domestic sprinkler made by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.[1]

Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons (making damage during lawn mowing or othe r maintenance less likely). These often are programmed to operate on a schedule and irrigate a piece of land in zones.[2]

Underground Sprinkler

Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless steel plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC (higher pressure commercial systems) or polyethylene pipe (for typically lower pressure residential systems). At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5-2m (7-15ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6-12m (20-40ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs. use of indigenous materials also recommended.[3]

Agricultural Science

Center pivot irrigation sprinkler nozzles, used in crop irrigation

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

End Gun style pivot applicator sprinkler

The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain. In the 1950s Sprinkle r System Installation Richardson a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed the rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.[4]


Most irrigation sprinklers are used as part of a sprinkler system, consisting of various plumbing parts, pump unit,[5] piping and control equipment. Outdoor sprinkler systems are sometimes used as a deterrent against homeless people. This sprinkler system was programmed to drench unsuspecting sleepers at random times during the night. Local businessmen soon copied this system in an effort to drive homeless people away from public sidewalks adjacent to their businesses.[6]

Health risks from aerosols

In 2014, it was reported that use of common garden hoses in combination with spray nozzles may generate aerosols c ontaining droplets smaller than 10 ?m, which can be inhaled by nearby people. Water stagnating in a hose between uses, especially when warmed by the sun, can host the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) as biofilms on the inner surface of the hose. Clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever have been found to be associated with inhalation of garden hose aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. The report provides measured microbial densities resulting from controlled hose conditions in order to quantify the human health risks. The densities of Legionella spp. identified in two types of hoses were found to be similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks from other causes. It is proposed that the risk could be mitigated by draining hoses after use.[7]


An underground sprinkler system about to be installed

Irrigation sprinkler watering crops.

An Irrigation sprinkler watering a garden.gif

Irrigation sprinkler

An oscillating sprinkler watering a lawn

A overhead sprinkler

Sprinkler for children

File:Irrigation sprinkler in action.webmPlay media

An irrigation sprinkler in action

Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California

See also

Drip irrigation


Sprinkler system timer


^ The Ride family's 'Nomad' brand tractor lawn sprinkler, National Museum of Australia

^ Sprinkler 101

^ Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rainbird - California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.

^ Irrigation Pipe On Wheels Move Across Fields, July 1950 Popular Science, bottom of page 114

^ "CHAPTER 5. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION". Retrieved 2016-08-26.

^ Davis, Mike (2006). City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso. p.233. ISBN978-1-84467-568-5.

^ Thomas, Jacqueline M.; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J. (2014). "Your Garden Hose: A Potential Health Risk Due toLegionellaspp. Growth Facilitated by Free-Living Amoebae". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (17): 10456-10464. ISSN0013-936X. doi:10.1021/es502652n.

External links

The dictionary definition of irrigation sprinkler at Wiktionary

Media related to Irrigation sprinkler at Wikimedia Commons




Garden tools





Daisy grubber


Earth auger


Garden fork

Garden hose

Grass shears

Grass stitcher

Hedge trimmer


Hori hori

Irrigation sprinkler

Lawn aerator

Lawn mower

Lawn sweeper

Leaf blower






Plough (plow)

Post hole digger

Potting bench

Pruning shears (secateurs)



Rotary tiller





String trimmer


Watering can














Aquatic garden

Bottle garden

Deep water culture

Ebb and flow



Nutrient film technique

Organic hydroponics


Sub-irrigated planter

Top drip



Coco peat

Diatomaceous earth

Expanded clay aggregate



Lava rock

Mineral wool



Rice hulls



Wood fibre


Grow light

Hydroponic dosers

Irrigation sprinkler

Leaf sensor


Spray nozzle


U ltrasonic hydroponic fogger

Water chiller

Related concepts


Aquaculture of coral

Aquaculture of sea sponges

Controlled-environment agriculture

Historical hydroculture



Plant nutrition

Plant propagation


Root rot

Vertical farming

Water aeration

Commons pageCommons

Wikibooks pageWikibooks

Wikiversity pageWikiversity

Authority control

NDL: 00571727

Re trieved from ""

Saturday, 17 June 2017

Irrigation: Whats the cost?

One of the key concerns that modern gardeners face is how best to utilize one of the most important resources to their projects, that is to say water. There are a of myriad different methods that deal with this problem and each has their own benefits and drawbacks, ranging from their basic efficiency, to their financial weight, to how quickly and thoroughly they get the job done.

Therefore, we have outlined the primary models of irrigation available to domestic horticulturalists, highl ighting the positives and negatives of each, and which size, or type of garden each would perform most effectively in.

The most simple, and arguably most cost effective, watering system is that of the simple water butt and watering can. As the operation relies solely on recycled rainwater and hand drawn dispersal, there is no financial burden beyond the initial purchase of the equipment. Also, this system requires no maintenance, aside from the first installation, as it will collect any rainfall it is exposed to simply by being there. There are many alternatives to the utilitarian-looking green butt available now, ranging from terracotta urn lookalikes, to faux lead cisterns. Of course the drawback of this system is also a product of its great advantage - its reliance on rainfall and it will inevitably fail as Sprin kler System Installation a system during a drought. There is also the amount of space versus water yield to consider - if you have a very large garden, then it may take up to half a dozen of these butts to sustain it, even in a rainy season. Not to mention the huge cost in time and labour spent darting back and forth with a watering can, although this can be extremely water efficient as you can guide where every drop of water ends up by hand.

Sprinklers attached to hoses are among the most common systems of domestic irrigation as they have the advantage of being mobile, not to mention having an adjustable area of effectiveness. However, the very concept of such above ground irrigation means that the method will be wrought with inefficiency as the majority of the water it provides will reach only the leaves and very shallow roots of plants. This method is best utilized primarily for hydrating lawns, as the grass surface is too small to resist its penetration, or for mainta ining moisture levels in unplanted areas of the garden.

The seep hose, or 'leaky pipe', has become a popular alternative innovation, particularly in formal gardens, due to the nature of planting styles that these afford. The basic principle of the seep hose is that porous tubes run either just under the soil close to the roots of several established plants, or on the surface under a mulch, and releases water gradually and consistently. These perform best in simple schemes, or when the plants are in a row, for example as in low box hedging. Soil density is important as it will affect the spread of the water - hard compacted soil may keep it on the surface and much will be lost to evaporation, or will run away from the base of the plant only to later sink and be absorbed into empty soil instead of your cultivars roots, whereas well-cultivated soil around the plants will allow the water to go where you want it to. Seep hoses are also a fairly cheap method of irrigation, however they are also at their most effective if installed to new gardens which will then allow you to plant around the circuit of irrigation. If your garden is already established you should probably consider one of the above ground options as this would be more efficient and cost effective.

A more sophisticated and efficient way of reaching wider areas with water is to install an automated 'spike' system. The pipework still snakes around the garden as with the above method, but the water is delivered via small spray heads which can be set at 45, 90, 180 or 360 degrees to apply the water exactly where you want it. The heads are at low level so that the water is sprayed near to the base of the plants, rather than all over the leaves as in the sprinkler method. The system is attached to an outside tap on a timer so that it will come on automatically, preferably in the middle of the night, so that the moisture can be absorbed into the soil, rather than evaporated in daytime heat. 'Dri ppers' can also be connected to the system to irrigate pots and planters.

In closing, while the water butt will be faraway your most cost effective option, you must weigh it against the size of your garden and whether you'll have the time and labour to rely on it solely - and also, of course, the likely rainfall. The sprinkler system, while fairly cheap and easy to control, has a very low order of efficiency in any other field than, well, lawn hydration. The seep hose is a valid option for large scale horticulture, however, it will require trial and error if it has not been a consideration during the planting stage and your garden is already established. The automated 'spike' system is probably the most expensive method of irrigation; however, the cost must be weighed against its superior efficiency, both in terms of water expended and time and effort involved.

Floral and Hardy are experts in this field, so if you are planning to re-design your garden and to include i rrigation as part of the plan, just get Sprinkler Installation Denton in touch.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Lawn (disambiguation).

"Lawns" redirects here. For other uses, see Lawns (disambiguation).

The Lawn at the University of Virginia, facing south.

The lawn of a small summerhouse.

A croquet lawn at a club in Edinburgh, Scotland

San Francisco Botanical Garden lawn

A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses or (rarely) other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes. Common characteristics of a lawn are that it is composed only of grass species, it is subject to weed and pest control, it is subject to practices aimed at maintaining its green color (e.g., watering), and it is regularly mowed to ensure an acceptable length,[1] although these characteristics are not binding as a definition. Lawns ar e used around houses, apartments, commercial buildings and offices. Many city parks also have large lawn areas. In recreational contexts, the specialised names turf, pitch, field or green may be used, depending on the sport and the continent.

The term "lawn", referring to a managed grass space, dates to no earlier than the 16th century. Tied to suburban expansion and the creation of the household aesthetic, the lawn is an important aspect of the interaction between the natural environment and the constructed urban and suburban space.[2] In many suburban areas, there are bylaws in place requiring houses to have lawns and requiring the proper maintenance of these lawns. In some jurisdictions where there are water shortages, local government authorities are encouraging alternatives to lawns to reduce water use.


1 Etymology

2 History

2.1 Origins

2.2 The English lawn

2.3 Middle class pursuit

2.4 United States

2.5 Ame rican lawn culture

2.6 Australia

3 Uses

4 Types of lawn plants

4.1 Grasses

4.1.1 Cool season grasses

4.1.2 Warm season grasses

4.2 Grass alternatives

4.3 Ground cover alternatives

5 Lawn care and maintenance

5.1 Planting and seeding

5.2 Fertilizers and chemicals

5.3 Mowing and other maintenance practices

6 Social impacts

7 Environmental concerns

7.1 Water conservation

7.2 Chemicals

7.3 Decreasing environmental impact

8 See also

8.1 Lawns

8.2 Gardening

8.3 Others

9 References

10 Further reading

11 External links


Lawn is a cognate of llan which is derived from the Common Brittonic word landa (Old French: launde) that originally means heath, barren land, or clearing.[3][4]



Gardens of the Chteau de Vaux-le-Vicomte, designed by Andr Le Ntre at Versailles.

Lawns may have originated as grassed enclosures within early medieval settlements used for communal grazing of livestock, as distinct from fields reserved for agriculture. The word "laune" is first attested in 1540,[5] and is likely related to the Celtic Brythonic word lan/llan/laun, which has the meaning of enclosure, often in relation to a place of worship.

Lawns became popular with the aristocracy in northern Europe from the Middle Ages onward. The early lawns were not always distinguishable from pasture fields. It is speculated that the association between the word "pasture" and biblical mentions made lawns a cultural affinity for some. The damp climate of maritime Western Europe in the north made lawns possible to grow and manage. They were not a part of gardens in other regions and cultures of the world until contemporary influence.[6]

Before the invention of mowing machines in 1830, lawns were managed very differently. They were an element of wealthy estates and manor houses, and in some places were maintained by the labor-intensive methods of scything and shearing. In most situations, they were also pasture land maintained through grazing by sheep or other livestock. Areas of grass grazed regularly by rabbits, horses or sheep over a long period often form a very low, tight sward similar to a modern lawn. This was the original meaning of the word "lawn", and the term can still be found in place names. Some forest areas where extensive grazing is practiced still have these seminatural lawns. For example, in the New Forest, England, such grazed areas are common, and are known as lawns, for example Balmer Lawn. Lawns similar to those of today first appeared in France and England in the 1700s when Andr Le Ntre designed the gardens of Versailles that included a small area of grass called the tapis vert, or "green carpet".

The English lawn

Capability Brown's landscape design at Badminton House.

It was not until the 17th and 18th century that the garden and the lawn became a place created first as walkways and social areas. They were made up of meadow plants, such as camomile, a particular favorite. In the early 17th century, the Jacobean epoch of gardening began; during this period, the closely cut "English" lawn was born. By the end of this period, the English lawn was a symbol of status of the aristocracy and gentry; it showed that the owner could afford to keep land that was not being used for a building, or for food production.

In the early 18th century, landscape gardening for the aristocracy entered a golden age, under the direction of William Kent and Lancelot "Capability" Brown. They refined the English landscape garden style with the design of natural, or "romantic", estate settings for wealthy Englishmen.[7] Brown, remembered as "England's greatest gardener", designed over 170 parks, many of which still endure. His influence was so great that the contributions to the English garden made by his predecessors Charles Bridgeman and William Kent are often overlooked.[8]
His work still endures at Croome Court (where he also designed the house), Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Bowood House, Milton Abbey (and nearby Milton Abbas village), in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations.[9] His style of smooth undulating lawns which ran seamlessly to the house and meadow, clumps, belts and scattering of trees and his serpentine lakes formed by invisibly damming small rivers, were a new style within the English landscape, a "gardenless" form of landscape gardening, which swept away almost all the remnants of previous formally patterned styles. His landscapes were fundamentally different from what they replaced, the well-known formal gardens of England which were criticised by Alexander Pope and others from the 1710s.[10]

1803 painting of the main elements of the English landscape garden.

The open "English style" of parkland first spread across Britain and Ireland, and then across Europe, such as the garden la franaise being replaced by the French landscape garden. By this time, the word "lawn" in England had semantically shifted to describe a piece of a garden covered with grass and closely mown.[11] Wealthy families in America during the late 18th century also began mimicking English landscaping styles. In 1780, the Shaker community began the first industrial production of high-quality grass seed in North America, and a number of seed companies and nurseries were founded in Philadelphia. The increased availability of these grasses meant they were in plentiful supply for parks and residential areas, not just livestock.[11]

Thomas Jefferson has long been given credit for being the first person to attempt an English-style lawn at his estate, Monticello, in 1806, but many others had tried to emulate English landscaping before he did. Over time, an increasing number towns in New England began to emphasize grass spaces. Many scholars link this development to the romantic and transcendentalist movements of the 19th century. These green commons were also heavily associate d with the success of the Revolutionary War and often became the homes of patriotic war memorials after the Civil War ended in 1865.[11]

Middle class pursuit

The lawn at Kirkby Fleetham Hall, Yorkshire, circa 1889.

Before the mechanical lawnmower, the upkeep of lawns was possible only for the extremely we althy estates and manor houses of the aristocracy. Labor-intensive methods of scything and shearing the grass were required to maintain the lawn in its correct state, and most of the land in England was required for more functional, agricultural purposes.

This all changed with the invention of the lawnmower by Edwin Beard Budding in 1830. Budding had the idea for a lawnmower after seeing a machine in a local cloth mill which used a cutting cylinder (or bladed reel) mounted on a bench to trim the irregular nap from the surface of woollen cloth and give a smooth finish.[12] Budding realised that a similar device could be used to cut grass if the mechanism was mounted in a wheeled frame to make the blades rotate close to the lawn's surface. His mower design was to be used primarily to cut the lawn on sports grounds and extensive gardens, as a superior alternative to the scythe, and he was granted a British patent on 31 August 1830.[13]

In an agreement between John Ferrabe e and Edwin Budding, Ferrabee paid the costs of development and acquired rights to manufacture, sell and license other manufacturers in the production of lawn mowers. Budding went into partnership with a local engineer, John Ferrabee, and together they made mowers in a factory at Thrupp near Stroud.[14] They allowed other companies to build copies of their mower under license, the most successful of these, was Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies of Ipswich which began mower production as early as 1832.[15]

The first petrol-powered lawnmower, 1902.

However, his model had two crucial drawbacks. It was immensely heavy (it was made of cast iron) and difficult to manoeuvre in the garden, and did not cut the grass very well. The blade would often spin above the grass uselessly.[15] It took ten more years and further innovations, including the advent of the Bessemer process for the production of the much lighter alloy steel and advances in motorization such as the drive chain, for the lawnmower to become a practical proposition. Middle-class families across the country, in imitation of aristocratic landscape gardens, began to grow finely trimmed lawns in their back gardens.

In the 1850s, Thomas Green of Leeds introduced a revolutionary mower design called the Silens Messor (meaning silent cutter), which used a chain to transmit power from the rear roller to the cutting cylinder. The machine was much lighter and quieter than the gear driven machines that preceded them, and won first prize at the first lawn mower trial at the London Horticultural Gardens.[15] T hus began a great expansion in the lawn mower production in the 1860s. James Sumner of Lancashire patented the first steam-powered lawn mower in 1893.[16] Around 1900, Ransomes' Automaton, available in chain- or gear-driven models, dominated the British market. In 1902, Ransomes produced the first commercially available mower powered by an internal combustion gasoline engine. JP Engineering of Leicester, founded after World War I, invented the first riding mowers.

From the 1860s, the cultivation of lawns, especially for sports, became a middle-class obsession in England. Pictured, a lawnmower advertisement from Ransomes.

This went hand-in-hand with a booming consumer market for lawns from the 1860s onward. With the increasing popularity of sports in the mid-Victorian period, the lawn mower was used to craft modern-style sporting ovals, playing fields, pitches and grass courts for the nascent sports of football, lawn bowls, lawn tennis and others.[17] The rise of Suburbanisation in the interwar period was heavily influenced by the garden city movement of Ebenezer Howard and the creation of the first garden suburbs at the turn of the 20th century.[18] The garden suburb, developed through the efforts of social reformer Henrietta Barnett and her husband, exemplified the incorporation of the well manicured lawn into suburban life.[19] Suburbs dramatically increased in size. Harrow Weald went from just 1,500 to over 10,000 while Pinner jumped from 3,00 to over 20,000. During the 1930s, over 4 million new suburban houses were built and the 'suburban revolution' had made England the m ost heavily suburbanized country in the world by a considerable margin.[20]

Lawns began to proliferate in America from the 1870s onwards. As more plants were introduced from Europe, lawns became smaller as they were filled with flower beds, perennials, sculptures, and water features.[21] Eventually the wealthy began to move away from the cities into new suburban communities. In 1856, an architectural book was published to accompany the development of the new suburbia that placed importance on the availability of a grassy space for children to play on and a space to grow fruits and vegetables that further imbued the lawn with cultural importance.[11] Lawns began making more appearances in development plans, magazine articles, and catalogs.[22] The lawn became less associated with being a status symbol, instead giving way to a landscape aesthetic. Improvements in the lawn mower and water supply enabled the spread of lawn culture from the Northeast to the South where the grass g rew more poorly.[11] This in combination with setback rules which required all homes to have a 30-foot gap between the structure and the sidewalk meant that the lawn had found a specific place in suburbia.[21]

United States

Lawn seating

A Memorial Day concert on the west lawn of the U.S. Capitol Building

Prior to European colonization, the grasses on the East Coast of North America wer e mostly broom straw, wild rye, and marsh grass. As Europeans moved into the region, it was noted by colonists in New England, more than others, that the grasses of the New World were inferior to those of England and that their livestock seemed to receive less nutrition from it. In fact, once livestock brought overseas from Europe spread throughout the colonies, much of the native grasses of New England disappeared, and an inventory list from the 17th century noted supplies of clover and grass seed from England. New colonists were even urged by their country and companies to bring grass seed with them to North America. By the late 17th century, a new market in imported grass seed had begun in New England.[11]

Much of the new grasses brought by Europeans spread quickly and effectively, often ahead of the colonists. One such species, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), became the most important pasture grass for the southern colonies.

Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a grass native to Europe or the Middle East. It was likely carried to Midwestern United States in the early 1600s by French missionaries and spread via the waterways to the region around Kentucky. However, it may also have spread across the Appalachian mountains after an introduction on the east coast. Kentucky Bluegrass is now one of the top three pasture grasses in the United States and the most desirable species of grass for lawns.

Farmers at first continued to harvest meadows and marshes composed of indigenous grasses until they became overgrazed. These areas quickly fell to erosion and were overrun with less favorable plant life. Soon, farmers began to purposefully plant new species of grass in these areas, hoping to improve the quality and quantity of hay to provide for their livestock as native species had a lower nutritive value. While Middle Eastern and Europeans species of grass did extremely well on the East Coast of North America, it was a number of grasses from t he Mediterranean that dominated the Western seaboard. As cultivated grasses became valued for their nutritional benefits to livestock, farmers relied less and less on natural meadows in the more colonized areas of the country. Eventually even the grasses of the Great Plains were overrun with European species that were more durable to the grazing patterns of imported livestock.[11] A pivotal factor in the spread of the lawn in America was the passage of legislation in 1938 of the 40-hour work week. Until then, Americans had typically worked half days on Saturdays, leaving little time to focus on their lawns. With this legislation and the housing boom following the Second World War, managed grass spaces became more commonplace.[21] The creation in the early 20th century of country clubs and golf courses completed the rise of lawn culture.[11]

American lawn culture

Lawn monoculture was a reflection of more than an interest in offsetting depreciation, it propagated the hom ogeneity of the suburb itself. Although lawns had been a recognizable feature in English residences since the 19th century, a revolution in industrialization and monoculture of the lawn since the Second World War fundamentally changed the ecology of the lawn. Intensive suburbanization both concentrated and Sprinkler System Rockwall expanded the spread of lawn maintenance which meant increased inputs in not only petrochemicals, fertilizers, and pesticides, but also natural resources like water.[2][11][21]

Front lawns became standardized in the 1930s when, over time, specific aspects such as grass type and maintenance methods became popular. The lawn-care industry boomed, but the Great Depression of the 1930s and in the period prior to World War II made it difficult to maintain the cultural standards that had become heavily associated with the lawn due to grass seed shortages in Europe, America's main supplier. Still, se ed distributors such as Scotts Miracle-Gro Company in the United States encouraged families to continue to maintain their lawns, promoting it as a stress-relieving hobby. During the war itself, homeowners were asked to maintain the appearances of the home front, likely as a show of strength, morale, and solidarity. After World War II, the lawn aesthetic once again became a standard feature of North America, bouncing back from its minor decline in the decades before with a vengeance, particularly as a result of the housing and population boom post-war.[11]

The G.I. Bill in the United States let American ex-servicemen buy homes without providing a down payment, while the Federal Housing Administration offered lender inducements that aided the reduction of down payments for the average American from 30% to as little as 10%. These developments made owning your own home cheaper than renting, further enabling the spread of suburbia and its lawns.[21]

Levittown, New York was the beginning of the industrial suburb in the 20th Century, and by proxy the industrial lawn. Between 1947 and 1951, Abraham Levitt and his sons built more than seventeen thousand homes, each with its own lawn. Abraham Levitt wrote "No single feature of a suburban residential community contributes as much to the charm and beauty of the individual home and the locality as well-kept lawns". Landscaping was one of the most important factors in Levittown's success - and no feature was more prominent than the lawn. The Levitts understood that landscaping could add to the appeal of their developments and claimed that, "increase in values are most often found in neighborhoods where lawns show as green carpets" and that, over the years, "lawns trees and shrubs become more valuable both esthetically and monetarily".[23] During 1948, the first spring that Levittown had enjoyed, Levitt and Sons fertilized and reseeded all of the lawns free of charge.[21]

The economic recession that bega n in 2008 has resulted in many communities worldwide to dig up their lawns and plant fruit and vegetable gardens. This has the potential to greatly change cultural values attached to the lawn, as they are increasingly viewed as environmentally and economically unviable in the modern context.[24]


The appearance of the lawn in Australia followed closely after its establishment in North America and parts of Europe. Lawn was established on the so-called "nature strip" by the 1920s and was common throughout the developing suburbs of Australia. This term is uniquely Australian, alluding, perhaps, to man's desire to control nature. By the 1950s, the Australian-designed Victa lawn mower was being used by the many people who had turned pastures into lawn and was also being exported to dozens of countries.[25] Prior to the 1970s, all brush and native species were stripped from a development site and replaced with lawns that utilized imported plant species. Since the 19 70s there has been an interest in using indigenous species for lawns, especially considering their lower water requirements.[26] Lawns are also established in garden areas as well as used for the surface of sporting fields.

Over time, with consideration to the frequency of droughts in Australia, the movement towards "naturalism", or the use of indigenous plant species in yards, was beneficial. These grasses were more drought resistant than their European counterparts, and many who wished to keep their lawns switched to these alternatives or allowed their green carpets to revert to the indigenous scrub in an effort to reduce the strain on water supplies.[24] However, lawns remain a popular surface and their practical and aesthetically pleasing appearance reduces the use of water-impervious surfaces such as concrete. The growing use of rainwater storage tanks has improved the ability to maintain them.

Following recent droughts, Australia has seen a change to predominatel y warm-season turfgrasses, particularly in the southern states like New South Wales and Victoria which are predominately temperate climates within urban regions. The more drought tolerant grasses have been chosen by councils and homeowners for the choice of using less water compared to cool-season turfgrasses like fescue and ryegrass. Mild dormancy seems to be of little concern when high-profile areas can be oversown for short periods or nowadays, turf colourants (fake green) are extremely popular.

Within Australia it is reported that there are nearly 400 turf farms.[27] Knowing which farm is currently selling what turf variety is difficult. However, in 2016 an independent web site called TurfFinder was developed to assist homeowners and professional turf managers in choosing the appropriate turfgrass that meets their needs. The web site lists generic and technical information on over 100 warm- and cool-season turfgrasses and provides the location of reputable turf producers from across Australia that sell these turf varieties.


A newly seeded, fertilized and mowed lawn

Lawns are a common feature of private gardens, public landscapes and parks in many parts of the world. They are created for aesthetic pleasure, as well as for sports or other outdoor recreational use. Lawns are useful as a playing surface both because they mitigate erosion and dust generated by intensive foot traffic and because they provide a cushion for players in sports such as rugby, football, soccer, cri cket, baseball, golf, tennis, hockey and lawn bocce.

Lawns and the resulting lawn clipping waste can be used as an ingredient in making compost and is also viewed as fodder, used in the production of lawn clipping silage which is fed to livestock[28][29] as a sustainable feed source.

Types of lawn plants

Lawns need not be, and have not always been, made up of grasses alone. Other plants for lawn-like usable garden areas are sedges, low herbs and wildflowers, and ground covers that can be walked upon.

The area on the right has not been mown since the previou s autumn.

Thousands of varieties of grasses and grasslike plants are used for lawns, each adapted to specific conditions of precipitation and irrigation, seasonal temperatures, and sun/shade tolerances. Plant hybridizers and botanists are constantly creating and finding improved varieties of the basic species and new ones, often more economical and environmentally sustainable by needing less water, fertilizer, pest and disease treatments, and maintenance. The three basic categories are cool season grasses, warm season grasses, and grass alternatives.


Many different species of grass are currently used, depending on the intended use and the climate. Coarse grasses are used where active sports are played, and finer grasses are used for ornamental lawns for their visual effects. Some grasses are adapted to oceanic climates with cooler summers, and others to tropical and continental climates with hotter summers. Often, a mix of grass or low plant types is use d to form a stronger lawn when one type does better in the warmer seasons and the other in the colder ones. This mixing is taken further by a form of grass breeding which produces what are known as cultivars. A cultivar is a cross-breed of two different varieties of grass and aims to combine certain traits taken from each individual breed. This creates a new strain which can be very specialised, suited to a particular environment, such as low water, low light or low nutrient.

Diagram of a typical lawn grass plant.

Diagram of a typical lawn grass plant.

Cool season grasses

Cool season grasses start growth at 5C (41F), and grow at their fastest rate when temperatures are between 10C (50F) and 25C (77F), in climates that have relatively mild/cool summers, with two periods of rapid growth in the spring and autumn.[30] They retain their color well in extreme cold and typically grow very dense, carpetlike lawns with relatively little thatch.

Conventional selections:

Bluegrass (Poa spp.)

Bentgrass (Agrostis spp.)

Ryegrasses (Lolium spp.)

Fescues (Festuca spp., hybrids, and cultivars)

Native plant regional selections (for taller lawns):

Red fescues (Festuca rubra)

Feather reed grass (Calamogrostis spp.)

Tufted hair grass (Deschampsia spp.)

Cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa spp.)

Warm season grasses

Warm season grasses only star t growth at temperatures above 10C (50F), and grow fastest when temperatures are between 25C (77F) and 35C (95F), with one long growth period over the spring and summer (Huxley 1992). They often go dormant in cooler months, turning shades of tan or brown. Many warm season grasses are quite drought tolerant, and can handle very high summer temperatures, although temperatures below -15C (5F) can kill most southern ecotype warm season grasses. The northern varieties, such as buffalograss and blue grama, are hardy to 45C (113F).

Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.)

Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)

St. Augustine grass

Bahiagrass (Paspalum)

Centipedegrass (Eremachloa)

Carpetgrass (Axonopus)

Buffalograss (drought tolerant)

Grama grass

Grass alternatives

Carex species and cultivars are well represented in the horticulture industry as 'sedge' alternatives for 'grass' in mowed lawns and garden meadows. Both low-growing and spreading orname ntal cultivars and native species are used in for sustainable landscaping as low-maintenance and drought-tolerant grass replacements for lawns and garden meadows. wildland habitat restoration projects and natural landscaping and gardens use them also for 'user-friendly' areas. The J. Paul Getty Museum has used Carex pansa (meadow sedge) and Carex praegracilis (dune sedge) expansively in the Sculpture Gardens in Los Angeles.[31]

Some lower sedges used are:

Carex caryophyllea (cultivar 'The Beatles')

C. divulsa (Berkeley sedge)[31]

C. glauca (blue sedge) (syn. C. flacca)

C. pansa (meadow sedge)[31]

C. praegracilis (dune sedge)[31]

C. subfusca (mountain sedge)[31]

C. tumulicola (foothill sedge) (cultivar 'Santa Cruz Mnts. selection')[31]

C. uncifolia (ruby sedge)

Ground cover alternatives

One of ground cover plants, common bearberry

Some lawns are replaced with low ground covers, such as creeping thyme, camomile, Lippia, purple flowering Mazus, grey Dymondia, creeping sedums, and creep ing jenny.[32] An example of this is the floral lawn in Avondale Park. Other alternatives to lawns include meadows, drought-tolerant xeriscape gardens, natural landscapes, native plant habitat gardens, paved Spanish courtyard and patio gardens, butterfly gardens, rain gardens, tapestry lawn and kitchen gardens. Trees and shrubs in close proximity to lawns provide habitat for birds in traditional, cottage and wildlife gardens.

Lawn care and maintenance

Seasonal lawn establishment and care varies depending on the climate zone and type of lawn grown.

Planting and seeding

Broadcast spreaders can be attached to tractors or ATVs to spread seed or fertilizer

Aeration is one method used to maintain a lawn

Early autumn, spring, and early summer are the primary seasons to seed, lay sod (turf), plant 'liners', or 'sprig' new lawns, when the soil is warmer and air cooler. Seeding is the least expensive, but may take longer for the lawn to be established. Aerating just before planting/seeding may promote deeper root growth and thicker turf.

Sodding (American English), or turfing (British English), provides an almost instant lawn, and can be undertaken in most temperate climates in any season, but is more expensive and more vulnerable to drought until established. Hydroseeding is a quick, less expensive method of planting large, sloped or hillside landscapes. Some grasses and sedges are available and planted from 'liner' and 4-inch (100mm) containers, from 'flats', 'plugs' or 'sprigs', and are planted apart to grow together.


Lawn growth, 20-hour time lapse

Fertilizers and chemicals

Various organic and inorganic or synthetic fertilizers are available, with instant or time-release applications. Pesticides, which includes biological and chemical herbicides, insecticides and fungicides are available. Consideration for their effects on the lawn and garden ecosystem and via runoff and dispersion on the surrounding environment, can constrain their use. For example, the Canadian province of Quebec and over 130 municipalities prohibit the use of synthetic lawn pesticides. In order for the lawn to grow and flourish, the soil must be prepared properly. If this step is overlooked as many do, the lawn will burn out as soon as it runs out of nutrients. [33][33] The Ontario provincial government promised on 24-2 September 2007 to also implement a province-wide ban on the cosmetic use of lawn pesticides, for protecting the public. Medical and environmental groups support such a ban.[34] On 22-2 April 2008, the Provincial Government of Ontario announced that it will pass legislation that will prohibit, province-wide, the cosmetic use and sale of lawn and garden pesticides.[35] The Ontario legislation would also echo Massachusetts law requiring pesticide manufacturers to reduce the toxins they use in production.[36]

Sustainable gardening uses organic horticulture methods, such as o rganic fertilizers, biological pest control, beneficial insects, and companion planting, among other methods, to sustain an attractive lawn in a safe garden. An example of an organic herbicide is corn gluten meal, which releases an 'organic dipeptide' into the soil to inhibit root formation of germinating weed seeds. An example of an organic alternative to insecticide use is applying beneficial nematodes to combat soil-dwelling grubs, such as the larvae of chafer beetles. The Integrated Pest Management approach is a coordinated low impact approach.[37]

Mowing and other maintenance practices

A typical lawn-mowing bot maintaining even and low grass.

Dethatching removes dead grass and decomposing materials that build up in a lawn

Lawn sweepers clean up debris from dethatching in addition to leaves, twigs, pine needles, etc.

Maintaining a rough lawn requires only occasional cutting with a suitable machine, or grazing by animals. Maintaining a smooth and closely cut lawn, be it for aesthetic or practical reasons or because social pressure from neighbors and local municipal ordinances requires it,[38] necessitates more organized and regular treatments. Usually once a week is adequate for maintaining a lawn in most climates. However, in the hot and rainy seasons of regions contained in hardiness zones greater than 8, lawns may need to be maintained up to two times a week.

Social impacts

The prevalence of the lawns in films such as Pleasantville and Edward Scissorhands alludes to the importance of the lawn as a social mechanism that gives great importance to visual representation of the American sub urb as well as its practised culture. It is implied that a neighbor, whose lawn is not in pristine condition, is morally corrupt, emphasizing the role a well-kept lawn plays in neighborly and community relationships. In both of these films, green space surrounding a house in the suburbs becomes an indicator of moral integrity as well as of social and gender norms as lawn care has long been associated with men. These lawns also reinforce class and societal norms by subtly excluding minorities who may not have been able to afford a house in the suburbs with a lawn that was the symbolic representation of safety and stability.[39] The lawn as a reflection of someone's character and the neighborhood at large is not restricted to films, the same theme is evident in The Great Gatsby, a book written by American novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald. Character Nick Carraway rents the house next to Gatsby's and fails to maintain his lawn according to West Egg standards. The rift between the two lawns troubles Gatsby to the point that he dispatches his gardener to mow Nick's grass and thereby create uniformity.[40]

Most lawn care equipment over the decades has been advertised to men, and companies have long associated good lawn care with good citizenship in their marketing campaigns. As well, the appearance of a healthy lawn was meant to imply the health of the man taking care of it; controlled weeds and strict boundaries became a practical application of the desire to control nature, as well as an expression of control over their personal lives once working full-time became central to suburban success. Women were encultured over time to view the lawn as part of the household, as an essential furnishing, and to encourage their husbands to maintain a lawn for the family and community reputation.[11]

During World War II, women became the focus of lawn-care companies in the absence of their husbands and sons. The lawn was promoted as a necessary means by which women co uld help support their male family members and American patriotism as a whole. The image of the lawn changed from focusing on technology and manhood to emphasizing aesthetic pleasure and the health benefits derived from its maintenance; it was assumed that women would not respond positively to images of efficiency and power. The language of these marketing campaigns still intended to imbue the female population with notions of family, motherhood, and the duties of a wife; it has been argued that this was done so that it would be easier for men returning from war to resume the roles their wives had taken over in their absence. This was especially apparent in the 1950s and 1960s, when lawn-care rhetoric emphasized the lawn as a husband's responsibility and as a pleasurable hobby when he retired.[11]

The lawn aesthetic in Europe and Australia seems to exhibit the same cultural tendencies as a representation of order, power over nature, patriotism, and suburban family life while still adhering to other gender constructs present throughout the world's suburbs. However, there are differences in the particulars of lawn maintenance and appearance, such as the length of the grass, species (and therefore its color), and mowing.[26][41]

Environmental concerns

Greater amounts of chemical fertilizer and pesticides are used per acre of lawn than on an equivalent acre of cultivated farmland,[42] and the continued use of these products has been associated with environmental pollution, disturbance in the lawn ecosystem, and increased health risks to the local human population.[43]

Other concerns, criticisms, and ordinances regarding lawns come from the environmental consequences:

Lawns can reduce biodiversity, especially when the lawn covers a large area. Lawns - particularly in the United States - may be composed of introduced species not native to an area, which can produce a habitat that Sprinkler Installation supports a reduced number of species.[44]

Lawn maintenance may use inorganic fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides, which can harm the environment. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has estimated nearly 70,000,000 pounds (32,000,000kg) of active pesticide ingredients are used on suburban lawns each year in the United States.[45] It has also been estimated that more herbicides are applied per acre of lawn than are used by most farmers to grow crops.[21]For example, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Kuwait, and Belize have placed restrictions on the use of the herbicide 2,4-D.

It has been estimated that nearly 17 million gallons of gasoline are spilled each summer while re-fueling garden and lawn-care equipment in the United States; approximately 50% more than that spilled during the Exxon Valdez incident.[21]

The use of pesticides and fertilizers, requiring fossil fuels for manufacturing, distribution, a nd application, have been shown to contribute to global warming, whereas sustainable organic techniques have been shown to help reduce global warming.[46]

A lawn sprinkler

Water conservation

Maintaining a green lawn sometimes requires large amounts of water. This is not normally a problem in the temperate British Isles, where the concept of the lawn originated, as natural rainfall is usually sufficient to maintain a lawn's health, although in times of drought hosepipe bans may be implemented by the water suppliers.[47] The exportation of the lawn ideal to mor e arid regions of the world, however, such as the U.S. Southwest and Australia, has crimped already scarce water resources in such areas, requiring larger, more environmentally invasive water supply systems. Grass typically goes dormant during cold, winter months, and turns brown during hot, dry summer months, thereby reducing its demand for water. Many property owners consider this "dead" appearance unacceptable, and therefore increase watering during the summer months. Grass can also recover quite well from a drought.

In the United States, 50 to 70% of residential water is used for landscaping, most of it to water lawns.[45] A 2005 NASA study "conservatively" estimated there was 128,000 square kilometres (49,000sqmi; 32,000,000 acres) of irrigated lawn in the US, three times the area of irrigated corn.[48]


That means about 200 gallons of fresh, usually drinking-quality water per person per day would be required to keep up our nation's lawn surface area.
< br>"

It is possible that lawn maintenance could come at the expense of precious resources, especially when faced with extreme weather conditions. This situation is described in Water in Australia by David Ingle Smith, who observed in 1995 data that under extreme conditions during summer drought periods, up to 90% of the water used in Canberra, Australia was applied to lawns.[49]


An increased concern from the general public over pesticide and fertilizer use and their associated health risks, combined with the implementation of the legislation, such as the US Food Quality Protection Act, has resulted in the reduced presence of synthetic chemicals, namely pesticides, in urban landscapes such as lawns in the late 20th century.[50] Many of these concerns over the safety and environmental impact of some of the synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has led to their ban by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and many local governments.[43] The use of pesticides and other chemicals to care for lawns has also led to the death of nearly 7 million birds each year, a topic that was central to Silent Spring by the conservationist Rachel Carson.[21]

Decreasing environmental impact

In the United States, lawn heights are generally maintained by gasoline-powered lawnmowers, which contribute to urban smog during the summer months. The EPA found, in some urban areas, up to 5% of smog was due to small gasoline engines made before 1997, such as are typically used on lawnmowers. Since 1997, the EPA has mandated emissions controls on newer engines in an effort to reduce smog.[51]

A 2010 study seemed to show lawn care inputs were balanced by the carbon sequestration benefits of lawns, and they may not be contributors to anthropogenic global warming.[52][53]

However, lawns with high maintenance (mowing, irrigation, and leaf blowing) and high fertilization rates have a net emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxid e that have large global warming potential.[54]

With the use of ecological techniques including organic lawn management, the impact of lawns can be reduced. Such methods include the use of native grasses, sedges, and low herbs; higher mowing techniques; low volume irrigation, 'grasscycling' grass clippings in place; an integrated pest management program; exclusive organic fertilizer and compost use; and including a variety of trees, shrubs, perennials, and other plants surrounding the lawn. A positive benefit of a healthy lawn is it filters contaminants and prevents runoff and erosion of bare soil.

Replacing turf grass with low-maintenance groundcovers or employing a variety of low-maintenance perennials, trees and shrubs[44] can be a good alternative to traditional lawn spaces, especially in hard-to-grow or hard-to-mow areas, as it ?an reduce maintenance requirements, associated pollution and offers higher aesthetic and wildlife value.[55]

See also




Lawn topics

Lawn sweeper

Lawn aerator

Organic lawn management



Organic gardening

Organic horticulture

Sustainable gardening

Sustainable landscaping

List of organic gardening and farming topics with links


bacterial lawn


^ Ripmeester, Michael. "Lawn." Encyclopedia of Urban Studies. Ed. Ray Hutchison. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009. 441-45. SAGE Reference Online. Web. 2 Apr 2012.

^ a b Robbins, Paul. Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2007.

^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". 10 June 1927. Retrieved 11 June 2013.

^ "laund". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 27 March 2013.

^ "Etymology for "lawn"". Etymonline. Retrieved 5 June 2015.

^ Hostetler, Mark E. (2012-02-07). The Green Leap: A Primer for Conserving Biodiversity in Subdivision Development. University of California Press. ISBN9780520271104.

^ "Lancelot Brown". Encyclopdia Britannica, Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica Inc. 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2012.

^ Walpole, Horace (1905) [1780]. On Modern Gardening. Canton, Pa.: Kirgate Press. at Internet Archive

^ "Lancelot 'Capability' Brown (1716-1783)". Kew History & Heritage. Kew Gardens. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.

^ Peter Willis, "Capability Brown in Northumberland" Garden History 9.2 (Autumn, 1981, pp. 157-183)

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jenkins, Virginia S. The Lawn: A History of an American Obsession. Smithsonian Institution, 1994.

^ "Gardening - Design - Georgian and Regency". BBC. Retrieved 24 May 2009.

^ US RE 8560, Passmore, Everett G., "Improvement in Lawn-Mowers", published 23 February 1869, issued 28 January 1879; see pg 1, col 2. For a copy, see Googl e Patents copy. This source indicates the patent number as "6,080". According to "British patent numbers 1617 - 1852 (old series)", the patent number was assigned sometime after 1852 and took the form of "6080/1830".

^ "People at the cutting edge: lawnmower designers". Parks & Gardens UK (University of York/Association of Gardens Trusts). Retrieved 24 May 2009.

^ a b c The Old Lawnmower Club. "Mower History". The Old Lawnmower Club. Retrieved 23 April 2011.

^ "The History of the LawnMower". Retrieved 23 April 2011.

^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National Ockham's Razor, first broadcast 6 June 2010.

^ "The suburban aspiration in England since 1919". Contemporary British History. 14: 151-174. doi:10.1080/13619460008581576.

^ "Henrietta Barnett and the Beginnings of the Suburb". Archived from the original on 6 December 2013.

^ "Suburban Ideals on England's Interwar Council Estates". Retrieved 17 December 2012.

^ a b c d e f g h i Steinberg, T. (2006). American Green, The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Lawn. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06084-5.

^ Influence of catalogs: See America's Romance with the English Garden by Thomas J. Mickey, 2013. Cited at [1]

^ Teysott, Georges (1 June 1999). The American Lawn. Princeton Architectural Press. p.18. ISBN1568981600.

^ a b Trudgill, Stephan; Jeffery, Angus; Parker, John (2010). "Climate Change and the Resilience of the Domestic Lawn". Applied Geography. 30 (1): 177-190. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2009.08.002.

^ Wood, Richard V. (2002). "Richardson, Mervyn Victor (1894 - 1972)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 2007-08-25.

^ a b Hogan, Trevor. " 'Nature Strip': Australian Suburbia and the Enculturation of Nature." Thesis Eleven 74:1 (2003): 54-75.

^ Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1998

^ "Making Silage from Lawn Clippings". Grit. Retriev ed 2016-01-05.

^ Logsdon, Gene (2004). All Flesh Is Grass. Ohio: Swallow Press. pp.Chapter 20. ISBN978-0-8040-1068-9.

^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). Lawns. In New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 3: 26-33. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-47494-5

^ a b c d e f Bornstein, Carol, Fross, David, and O'Brien, Bart; 'California Native Plants for the Garden;' Cachuma Press, Los Olivos, CA; 2005; ISBN 0-9628505-8-6, 0-9628505-9-4. pp. 74-5.

^ Lunn, Matthew (7 September 2004). "Fact Sheet: Lawn Alternatives". Gardening Australia. Retrieved 16 September 2009.

^ a b Christie, Mike (13 March 2007). "Private Property Pesticide By-laws In Canada" (PDF). The Coalition for a Healthy Ottawa.

^ "Why We Support a Province-wide Ban on Cosmetic Pesticides" (PDF).

^ Mittelstaedt, Martin (22 April 2008). "Ontario to prohibit cosmetic-use pesticides". Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008.

^ Benzie, Robert (22 April 2008). "Pesticide ban set to grow ". Toronto Star.

^ UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. access date: 25 May 2010

^ "High Weed/Grass Complaint Process". City of Akron, Ohio.

^ Dickinson, Greg (2006). "The Pleasantville Effect: Nostalgia and the Visual Framing of (White) Suburbia". Western Journal of Communication. 70 (3): 212-233. doi:10.1080/10570310600843504.

^ Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925.

^ Sedgman, K (1997). "Cutting Grass: In Search of the Australian Male". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy. 18 (3): 143-147. doi:10.1002/j.1467-8438.1997.tb00284.x.

^ Coates, Peter (2004). "Emerging from the Wilderness: (or, From Redwoods to Bananas): Recent Environmental History in the United States and the Rest of the Americas". Environment and History. 10: 407-38. doi:10.3197/0967340042772676.

^ a b Alumai, Alfred. "Urban Lawn Management: Addressing the Entomological, Agronomic, Economic, and Soc ial Drivers." PhD., Ohio State University, 2008.

^ a b Rebecca Pineo. Susan Barton. Turf Grass Madness: Reasons to Reduce the Lawn in Your Landscape

^ a b "Cut Your Lawn - In Half!". National Wildlife Federation.

^ Sayre, Laura. "Organic farming combats global warming--big time". Rodale Institute.

^ "Hosepipe ban". Retrieved 21 January 2015.

^ Milesi, Cristina; S.W. Running; C.D. Elvidge; J.B. Dietz; B.T. Tuttle; R.R. Nemani (8 November 2005). "Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States". Environmental Management. 3: 426-438. doi:10.1007/s00267-004-0316-2. Retrieved 5 November 2010.

^ David Ingle Smith (1998). Water in Australia: Resources and Management. Oxford University Press, Melbourne

^ Alumai, Alfred; Salminen, Seppo O.; Richmond, Douglas S; Cardina, John; Grewal, Parwinder S. (2009). "Comparative Evaluation of Aesthetic, Biological, and Economic Effectiveness of Different Lawn Managemen t Programs". Urban Ecosyst. 12: 127-144. doi:10.1007/s11252-008-0073-8.

^ "Answers to Commonly Asked Questions from Dealers and Distributors" (PDF). U.S. EPA. August 1998.

^ "Lawns may contribute to global warming" by Judy Lowe, Christian Science Monitor, 22 January 2010.

^ "Retrieved 17 May 2010".

^ Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia (March 2010). "Correction to "Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf"". Geophysical Research Letters. 37 ( Bibcode:2010GeoRL..37.6707T. doi:10.1029/2010GL042735. Retrieved 15 March 2012.

^ Rebecca Pineo, Botanic Gardens Intern Susan Barton, Extension Specialist. Groundcover Alternatives to Turf Grass

Further reading

Bormann, F. Herbert, et al. (1993) Redesigning the American Lawn.

Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Lawns: Ch. 3: pp.26-33. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-4 7494-5.

Jenkins, V. S. (1994). The Lawn: A History of an American Obsession. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-56098-406-6.

Steinberg, T. (2006). American Green, The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Lawn. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-06084-5.

Wasowski, Sally and Andy (2004). Requiem for a Lawnmower.

External links

Media related to Lawns at Wikimedia Commons

Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Lawns.

"Planting and care of Lawns" from the UNT Govt. Documents Dept.

Integrated Pest Management Program: website & search-engine

Lawn Care University at Michigan State University

"EPA Management of Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution" (includes mismanagement of lawns problems.)




Lawn and garden ornaments


Bird bath

Bathtub Madonna

Concrete Aboriginal

Concrete goose

Garden gnome

Lawn jockey

Plastic flamingo



Yard globe

Garden gnome with wheelbarrow-20051026.jpg





Wind chime

Wishing well

Authority control

NDL: 00570873

Retrieved from ""